Microwave (tower) communication technology

Advantage: speed limit about 0.997c. Easy to get straight communication lines.

Disadvantage: weather dependent (?), hard to cross Transatlantic ocean (but far from impossible).

2015 The Times UK: High speed traders make millions in split seconds

2015 Bloomberg: Speed Traders Team Up in Microwave-Tower Superhighway Plan

2015 McKay Brothers Microwave Sets New Latency Record Between UK and Frankfurt

``McKay Brothers microwave lowered latency to 4.192 milliseconds on its wireless route between Frankfurt and Basildon. "

2014 McKay Brothers, a Geneva-based network provider for trading firms, is opening a microwave data link between the UK and Germany

2014 HFT In my Backyard

2014 Innovator Windy Apple Announces Transatlantic Plans and Offers Promotional Pricing for New York-to-Chicago Microwave Network

2014 Bloomberg: High-Frequency Traders Find Microwaves Suit Their Need for Speed

2014 Bloomberg: Wall Street Buys NATO Microwave Towers in Quest for Speed

2014 Banking technology: Perseus Telecom launches ‘trans-Atlantic’ microwave service

2013 Some HFT Firms May Have Overcooked Their Microwave Strategies